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On March 20, 1819, Rapp commented, "It is astonishing how much trouble the people who have arrived here have made, for they have no morals and do not know what it means to live a moral and well-mannered life, not to speak of true Christianity, of denying the world or yourself." Visitors to Harmony commented on the commercial and industrial work being done in this religious settlement along the Wabash River.
"It seemed as though I found myself in the midst of Germany," noted one visitor.
The Harmonists settled in the Indiana Territory after leaving Harmony, Pennsylvania, where westward expansion, the area's rising population, jealous neighbors, and the increasing cost of land threatened the Society's desire for isolation. Baker, and Ludwick Shirver (Ludwig Schreiber) traveled west in search of a new location for their congregation, one that would have fertile soil and access to a navigable waterway.10, "The place is 25 miles from the Ohio mouth of the Wabash, and 12 miles from where the Ohio makes its curve first before the mouth.
The town will be located about 1/4 mile from the river above on the channel on a plane as level as the floor of a room, perhaps a good quarter mile from the hill which lies suitable for a vineyard." Although Rapp expressed concern that the town's location lacked a waterworks, the area provided an opportunity for expansion and access to markets through the nearby rivers, causing him to remark, "In short, the place has all the advantages which one could wish, if a steam engine meanwhile supplies what is lacking." The first Harmonists left Pennsylvania in June 1814 and traveled by flatboat to their new land in the Indiana Territory.
Members grumbled about inequity in credits between workers and non-workers.
Despite the community's shortcomings, Owen was a passionate promoter of his vision for New Harmony.
The town of Harmony was founded by the Harmony Society in 1814 under the leadership of German immigrant George Rapp (born Johann Georg Rapp).
It was the second of three towns built by the pietist, communal religious group, known as Harmonists, Harmonites, or Rappites.
The move, although it was made primarily for religious reasons, would provide the Harmonists with easier access to eastern markets and a place where they could live more peacefully with others who shared their German language and culture.While many of the town's new arrivals had a sincere interest in making it a success, the experiment also attracted "crackpots, free-loaders, and adventurers whose presence in the town made success unlikely."24, 1825: "I doubt whether those who have been comfortable and content in their old mode of life, will find an increase of enjoyment when they come here.How long it will require to accustom themselves to their new mode of living, I am unable to determine." By May 1825 the community had adopted the "Constitution of the Preliminary Society," which loosely outlined its expectations and government.On May 24, 1824, a group of Harmonists boarded a steamboat and departed Indiana, bound for Pennsylvania, where they founded the community of Economy, the present-day town of Ambridge.In May 1825 the last Harmonists left Indiana after the sale of their 20,000 acres (81 km Robert Owen was a social reformer and wealthy industrialist who made his fortune from textile mills in New Lanark, Scotland.
Owen, his twenty-two-year-old son, William, and his Scottish friend Donald Mc Donald sailed to the United States in 1824 to purchase a site to implement Owen's vision for "a New Moral World" of happiness, enlightenment, and prosperity through education, science, technology, and communal living.